Old Testament Survey
Kings – The United Kingdom
1 & 2 Samuel / 1 & 2 Chronicles
Creation – Patriarchs – Egypt – Exodus – Land – Judges
(250 +/- yrs) (400 yrs) (40 yrs) (30 yrs) (350 yrs)
<- Genesis, Job? -> <-Exodus – Deut -> <-Joshua-> <-Judges, Ruth->
The United Kingdom Timeline 1 & 2 Samuel / 1 & 2 Chronicles
Samuel – Saul – David – Solomon
(40 yrs) (40 yrs) (40 yrs)
1. The era of Judges ends with Samuel. He was the last judge and also a prophet.
2. Israel asks for and receives a King.
3. Saul is the first king of Israel – he is soon rejected by God due to his sins.
4. David is the great king of Israel – he is a type of Christ even though he falls into many sins.
5. Jerusalem is set as capital (2 Samuel 5:6-10).
6. Solomon is king of Israel – he is a peaceful king who compromises a holy life in his later years.
7. The Temple is conceived by David and built by Solomon.
David – Type of Christ
• In the life of David we get the first major glimpse of what the Messiah will be like.
• Lineage from Judah yet Gentiles grafted in (Moabite great grandmother, Ruth, Canaanite great-great grandmother, Rahab).
• Chosen by God – 1 Samuel 16:1
• Man after God’s own heart – 1 Sam. 16:7
• Covenant made with him (Davidic Covenant – 2 Sam. 7:13-16). He would have a throne forever.
• Slew enemies of Israel
• Flight to and from Jerusalem
How the Sin of Kings was Handled
1. Saul’s sin = taking on the role of priest and offering burnt offerings (1 Sam. 13:1-15) & not obeying the Lord completely by not destroying all the Amalekites and their property (1 Sam. 15).
2. David’s sin = Adultery/murder (2 Sam. 11) and counting Israel (2 Sam. 24).
3. Why the different treatment?
a. Different hearts – Saul didn’t care about (despised) the Lord’s commands and David did care. Their sins and type of repentance (or lack of) revealed their heart before God. David was known as a “Man after God’s heart.” This is seen even in the way he repented after he fell into sin.
b. God did not reject Saul because of the sin. The sin of Saul was a demonstration of a king who was never meant for God’s people. In other words – “This is the type of king you should not have to rule over you. See the lack of devotion he has towards Me? He was never meant for you to begin with.”
Temple (see handout)
Take Away Points
1. Potential discrepancy – God was displeased with Israel when they asked for a king (1 Sam. 8:6-9); Israel was warned about what a king would do to them (1 Sam. 8:10-22); God gave them Saul as a king with apparent resignation (1 Sam. 12:6-15); yet God had already been planning on giving them a king (Deut. 17:14-20). The underlying truth of this is that God wanted them to be ruled with His king and under His conditions. Israel wanted a king for their own reasons and under their conditions – Saul was a failure and David was God’s first true king.
2. Israel chose a king based off of looks and appearance of strength; Saul failed. God chose a king based off of the heart qualities; David succeeded. The inner qualities of a man are more important than any outer qualities.
3. All men are sinners (David and Saul). What happens after the sin makes a big difference in one’s relationship with God. While we are not to pursue sin or be presumptuous of God’s forgiveness, a broken and contrite heart is what God desires. God is committed to fallen, broken, sinful people; this was displayed in the life of David. We must not think our relationship with God is dependent upon a holy life – it is dependent upon the work of the Lord Jesus.
4. God has always planned on being King of His people. He showed the people their own failure to rule themselves (Judges) and their need for a godly king. David and his throne is a type foretelling the coming of Christ as the King of Kings.
5. God dwelt with His people in the Tabernacle and Temple. There were strict conditions place on His dwelling. With the coming of Christ and His final sacrifice of His own body for the sins of His people, God was able to now dwell inside His people – the Holy Spirit dwells in believers and the Church (the Body of Christ). In the New Jerusalem, there will be no temple, only the glory of the Lord dwelling directly with God’s people.