Lesson 7 Notes

February 10, 2009

Old Testament Survey
Week 7
The Poetic Books
(Job–Psalms—Proverbs—Ecclesiastes—Song of Songs)

Review: Thus far we have traced the history of the Old Testament as follows:

Creation—Fall—Flood—Patriarchs—Exodus—Conquest—Judges—United Kingdom

Week 6 focused on the development of two major aspects to Jewish history, the development of the kingship and the building of the temple. As with other parts of Jewish life, we saw how those two major developments foreshadowed the work of Jesus Christ.

We have looked at the layout of the Old Testament, and examined a helpful division of the books. Today we are going to take a break from covering the chronological development of Old Testament history and focus on a wonderful section of scripture, the poetic books. These books comprise 242 chapters, so covering content will be the journey of other classes and other days. The goal of this lesson will be to take a central lesson from each of the five books to explain their place in scripture and whet your appetite to dig deeper into them.

Psalms

I avoided Psalms when I first became a Christian. The book of Psalms often gave me trouble, because there are many statements that seem to present theological problems. Certainly there are questions to answer about the Psalms, but we should not miss the blessing of the book for that reason. One key thing to learn from Psalms is how important it is for man to speak to God.

When someone is in trouble, God wants to hear from them. (Psalm 86:7—In the day of my trouble, I will call to you and you will answer me.) Even more, We discover in the Psalms the importance of being honest with God. There can be a great temptation to hide our confusion about life and even God’s seeming absence, but scripture encourages us to be honest about our struggles—Consider Psalm 22:1-4: “My God, My God, why have you forsaken me? Why are you so far from helping me and from the words of my groaning? O my God, I cry by day, but you do not answer, and by night, but I find no rest. Yet you are holy, enthroned on the praises of Israel. In you our fathers trusted; they trusted, and you delivered them.” David cries out to God and even laments God’s seeming absence in his trial. Yet he will not let go of God. This is very reminiscent of Jacob in Genesis 32—“I will not let go of you until you bless me.” Even in Psalms 88 & 89, rife with confusion and despair, the Psalmist does not hide his heart or mind from God.

God wants us to speak our joy. To paraphrase C.S. Lewis, to praise a thing is not merely an expression of our pleasure, but the completion of it. Perhaps the reason why many of us are not as happy as we should be is because we do not take this lesson from the Psalms, that we should praise God more loudly, to express our hearts more freely to him. As James 5 says, “Is anyone among you happy? Let him sing songs of praise.” We need to praise God for his works (Psalm 107, 135), for his protection of us (Psalm 3), for the wise law of the LORD (Psalm 19 & 119), and ultimately, simply for who God is (67, 150).

Let us learn the lesson of the Psalms and to make known to God both our sorrows and our joys.

Proverbs

The book of Proverbs is a training manual in basic wisdom. Like Psalms, different parts of this book were written by different authors (Solomon being the major contributor), and then assembled into its final form some years later.
The preamble (1:1-7) is critical to understanding the book:

The proverbs of Solomon, son of David, king of Israel:  To know wisdom and instruction, to understand words of insight, to receive instruction in wise dealing, in righteousness, justice, and equity; to give prudence to the simple, knowledge and discretion to the youth –  Let the wise hear and increase in learning, and the one who understands obtain guidance,  to understand a proverb and a saying, the words of the wise and their riddles. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge; fools despise wisdom and instruction.

This training manual was meant to be specifically used to train Hebrew children how to live wisely in God’s world. It further says even the wise can add to their learning through the study of Proverbs.
Of chief importance in the book is the fear of the LORD, which is called the beginning of wisdom. It is important to consider that in God’s economy wisdom is knowledge with moral direction—a Godward direction. Likewise, the author urges the reader to flee two major pitfalls for gaining wisdom, the lure of easy money and the adulteress.

As you read Proverbs, there are several helpful ideas that will help you get the most out of the book. Chapters 1-9 are a prologue, designed to prepare the reader to receive the wisdom of the rest of the book. While there is practical instruction in this part of the book, the main objective is to convince the reader of the goal—that pursuing wisdom is a more worthy pursuit than chasing wealth or women. Chapters 10-31 are body of the book. Like other biblical books, the collections of proverbs, while of value individually, also have context and a larger message. Some of the more puzzling proverbs may be resolved by understanding their surrounding context.

Job

Job wrestles with one central question—“Why do righteous men suffer?”

The setting of Job is during the time of the Patriarchs, though probably assembled after the time of the Judges. The man Job is clearly identified to us as a righteous man from the beginning of the book (Job 1:1, 5). When God gives the Devil permission to afflict him, tragedy of every imaginable kind befalls him; in the course of a few days, he loses his vast wealth, experiences the loss of his children and finally the loss of his own health. Yet despite this, Job refuses to doubt God or curse Him for these troubles (Job 1:21-22). Three of Job’s friends come to comfort him in his misery. They say nothing for seven days (2:12-13)—the smartest thing they say. The majority of the book consists of three cycles of speeches from these friends and Job’s responses. (Job 3:1-31:40) Essentially, these friends cannot understand Job’s situation; they grow more and more convinced that he has done something drastically wrong or sinful that has brought about his suffering. By the time the three cycles of speeches are done, they are accusing him of all manner of mischief, very unbecoming of friends. Chapters 32-37 are the words of a younger man, Elihu, who has heard Job’s friends and seen that they have failed to answer his question. Elihu suggests that Job’s suffering is not because he has done anything wicked, but because God is using this trial to purge him of his remaining sin, and to keep him from falling prey to unseen dangers (33:14-30). He rebukes Job for doubting God’s purposes. Chapters 38-39 contain God’s first answer to Job, which consist of 62 unanswerable questions. By this, God demonstrates that Job does not understand most of God’s ways, and that he need not & will not. Chapters 40-41 contain God’s second answer to Job, that God does these inexplicable works to restrain evils which no other being on earth can tame (symbolized by Behemoth and Levithan). Chapter 42 contains the epilogue, showing Job’s repentance and reconciliation with his friends, and so that we are assured that Job truly was righteous, we see the restoration of blessing on his life.

Ecclesiastes

One of the most challenging books of the Old Testament, it can also be one of the richest. Ecclesiastes helps us understand the fleeting nature of life and the foolishness of men’s pride and his many empty pursuits. The chief value of Ecclesiastes is to lay bare the emptiness of life without God, ‘a chasing after the wind’ (Ecclesiastes 1:14). The writer does this masterfully in two main sections: (division & outline from Bruce Waltke)

Point #1: All of life is temporary and possessions are unreliable (1:1-4:16)
Response #1: Cultivate a humble heart before God/choose enjoyment over greed (5:1-6:9)

Point #2: Everything is Elusive—Men do not know what is good; what seems good often later becomes evil and vice versa (6:10-8:17)
Response #2: Rejoice in the day you have, do not forget the day that is coming (9:1-12:8)

Song of Songs

Some people really wonder why this book is in the Bible. Yet it stands as a simple and beautiful statement that God has created romantic love, and it is a gloriously precious thing. The summary of the whole story could be found in chapter 8:7, which says:

Many waters cannot quench love; rivers cannot wash it away. If one were to give all the wealth of his house for love, it would be utterly scorned.

There are issues often discussed about this book, as to who the lover is, is the whole book a metaphor, etc. I am inclined (with a debt to the help of others, like Waltke) to think this is an older Solomon reflecting on an event that really happened. He may have approached this woman, the Shunnamite, and sought to woo her. Yet this woman was already in love with a young, humble shepherd. She rejects Solomon’s advances in favor of this young man’s love. If the story is so, Solomon is reflecting on the value of such love and honoring God as its giver.


Lesson 7 Video

February 9, 2009

CLICK HERE to watch the video of Rob Genin teaching Lesson #7 of the Old Testament Survey Class, Eastwood Presbyterian Church, Montgomery, AL on Feb. 1, 2009.


Lesson 6

January 27, 2009

Old Testament Survey
Kings – The United Kingdom
1 & 2 Samuel / 1 & 2 Chronicles

Review
Creation    –       Patriarchs        –  Egypt       –    Exodus    –   Land    –     Judges
(250 +/- yrs)        (400 yrs)       (40 yrs)       (30 yrs)      (350 yrs)
<-      Genesis, Job?   ->         <-Exodus – Deut         ->   <-Joshua-> <-Judges, Ruth->

The United Kingdom Timeline 1 & 2 Samuel / 1 & 2 Chronicles

Samuel   –              Saul   –              David   –           Solomon
(40 yrs)               (40 yrs)               (40 yrs)

Key Events
1.    The era of Judges ends with Samuel.  He was the last judge and also a prophet.
2.    Israel asks for and receives a King.
3.    Saul is the first king of Israel – he is soon rejected by God due to his sins.
4.    David is the great king of Israel – he is a type of Christ even though he falls into many sins.
5.    Jerusalem is set as capital (2 Samuel 5:6-10).
6.    Solomon is king of Israel – he is a peaceful king who compromises a holy life in his later years.
7.    The Temple is conceived by David and built by Solomon.

David – Type of Christ
•    In the life of David we get the first major glimpse of what the Messiah will be like.
•    Lineage from Judah yet Gentiles grafted in (Moabite great grandmother, Ruth, Canaanite great-great grandmother, Rahab).
•    Chosen by God – 1 Samuel 16:1
•    Man after God’s own heart – 1 Sam. 16:7
•    Covenant made with him (Davidic Covenant – 2 Sam. 7:13-16).  He would have a throne forever.
•    Slew enemies of Israel
•    Persecuted
•    Flight to and from Jerusalem

How the Sin of Kings was Handled
1.    Saul’s sin = taking on the role of priest and offering burnt offerings (1 Sam. 13:1-15) & not obeying the Lord completely by not destroying all the Amalekites and their property (1 Sam. 15).
2.    David’s sin = Adultery/murder (2 Sam. 11) and counting Israel (2 Sam. 24).
3.    Why the different treatment?
a.    Different hearts – Saul didn’t care about (despised) the Lord’s commands and David did care.  Their sins and type of repentance (or lack of) revealed their heart before God.  David was known as a “Man after God’s heart.”  This is seen even in the way he repented after he fell into sin.
b.    God did not reject Saul because of the sin.  The sin of Saul was a demonstration of a king who was never meant for God’s people.  In other words – “This is the type of king you should not have to rule over you.  See the lack of devotion he has towards Me?  He was never meant for you to begin with.”

Temple (see handout)

Take Away Points
1.    Potential discrepancy – God was displeased with Israel when they asked for a king (1 Sam. 8:6-9); Israel was warned about what a king would do to them (1 Sam. 8:10-22); God gave them Saul as a king with apparent resignation (1 Sam. 12:6-15); yet God had already been planning on giving them a king (Deut. 17:14-20).  The underlying truth of this is that God wanted them to be ruled with His king and under His conditions.  Israel wanted a king for their own reasons and under their conditions – Saul was a failure and David was God’s first true king.
2.    Israel chose a king based off of looks and appearance of strength; Saul failed.  God chose a king based off of the heart qualities; David succeeded.  The inner qualities of a man are more important than any outer qualities.
3.    All men are sinners (David and Saul).  What happens after the sin makes a big difference in one’s relationship with God.  While we are not to pursue sin or be presumptuous of God’s forgiveness, a broken and contrite heart is what God desires.  God is committed to fallen, broken, sinful people; this was displayed in the life of David.  We must not think our relationship with God is dependent upon a holy life – it is dependent upon the work of the Lord Jesus.
4.    God has always planned on being King of His people. He showed the people their own failure to rule themselves (Judges) and their need for a godly king.  David and his throne is a type foretelling the coming of Christ as the King of Kings.
5.    God dwelt with His people in the Tabernacle and Temple. There were strict conditions place on His dwelling.  With the coming of Christ and His final sacrifice of His own body for the sins of His people, God was able to now dwell inside His people – the Holy Spirit dwells in believers and the Church (the Body of Christ).  In the New Jerusalem, there will be no temple, only the glory of the Lord dwelling directly with God’s people.


Lesson 6 Handouts

January 27, 2009

Lesson 6 Handouts


Lesson 6 – For Further Reading

January 27, 2009

Prophecies of King David in Psalms
Fulfilled in Jesus Christ and His Church

1.    The Messiah would also be rejected by Gentiles.
•    Psalm 2:1 / Acts 4:25-28
2.    Political/religious leaders would conspire against the Messiah.
•    Psalm 2:2 / Matthew 26:3-4; Mark 3:6
3.    The Messiah would be King of the Jews.
•    Psalm 2:6 / John 12:12-13; 18:32
4.    The Messiah would be the Son of God.
•    Psalm 2:7a / Luke 1:31-35; Matthew 3:16-17; Hebrews 1:5-6
5.    The Messiah would reveal that He was the Son of God.
•    Psalm 2:7b / John 9:35-37
6.    The Messiah would be raised from the dead and be crowned King.
•    Psalm 2:7c    / Acts 13:30-33; Romans 1:3-4
7.    The Messiah would ask God for His inheritance.
•    Psalm 2:8a / John 17:4-24
8.    The Messiah would have complete authority over all things.
•    Psalm 2:8b / Matthew 28:18; Hebrews 1:1-2
9.    The Messiah would not acknowledge those who did not believe in Him.
•    Psalm 2:12 / John 3:36
10.    Infants would give praise to the Messiah.
•    Psalm 8:2 / Matthew 21:15-16
11.    The Messiah would have complete authority over all things.
•    Psalm 8:6 / Matthew 28:18
12.    The Messiah would be resurrected.
•    Psalm 16:8-10a / Matthew 28:6; Acts 2:25-32
13.    The Messiah’s body would not see corruption (natural decay).
•    Psalm 16:8-10b / Acts 13:35-37
14.    The Messiah would be glorified into the presence of God.
•    Psalm 16:11 / Acts 2:25-33
15.    The Messiah would come for all people.
•    Psalm 18:49 / Ephesians 3:4-6
16.    The Messiah would cry out to God.
•    Psalm 22:1a / Matthew 27:46
17.    The Messiah would be forsaken by God at His crucifixion.
•    Psalm 22:1b / Mark 15:34
18.    The Messiah would pray without ceasing before His death.
•    Psalm 22:2 / Matthew 26:38-39
19.    The Messiah would be despised and rejected by His own.
•    Psalm 22:6 / Luke 23:21-23
20.    The Messiah would be made a mockery.
•    Psalm 22:7 / Matthew 27:39
21.    Unbelievers would say to the Messiah, “He trusted in God, let Him now deliver Him.”
•    Psalm 22:8 / Matthew 27:41-43
22.    The Messiah would know His Father from childhood.
•    Psalm 22:9 / Luke 2:40
23.    The Messiah would be called by God while in the womb.
•    Psalm 22:10 / Luke 1:30-33
24.    The Messiah would be abandoned by His disciples.
•    Psalm 22:11 / Mark 14:50
25.    The Messiah would be encompassed by evil spirits.
•    Psalm 22:12-13 / Colossians 2:15
26.    The Messiah’s body would emit blood & water.
•    Psalm 22:14a / John 19:34
27.    The Messiah would be crucified.
•    Psalm 22:14b / Matthew 27:35
28.    The Messiah would thirst while dying.
•    Psalm 22:15a / John 19:28
29.    The Messiah would thirst just prior to His death.
•    Psalm 22:15b / John 19:30
30.    The Messiah would be observed by Gentiles at His crucifixion.
•    Psalm 22:16a / Luke 23:36
31.    The Messiah would be observed by Jews at His crucifixion.
•    Psalm 22:16b / Matthew 27:41-43
32.    Messiah crucified: Both the Messiah’s hands and feet would be pierced.
•    Psalm 22:16c / Matthew 27:38
33.    The Messiah’s bones would not be broken.
•    Psalm 22:17a / John 19:32-33
34.    The Messiah would be viewed by many during His crucifixion.
•    Psalm 22:17b / Luke 23:35
35.    The Messiah’s garments would be parted among the soldiers.
•    Psalm 22:18a / John 19:23-24
36.    The soldiers would cast lots for the Messiah’s clothes.
•    Psalm 22:18b / John 19:23-24
37.    The Messiah’s atonement would enable believers to receive salvation.
•    Psalm 22:22 / Hebrews 2:10-12; Matthew 12:50; John 20:14
38.    The Messiah’s enemies would stumble and fall.
•    Psalm 27:2 / John 18:3-6
39.    The Messiah would be accused by false witnesses.
•    Psalm 27:12 / Matthew 26:59-61
40.    The Messiah would cry out to God “Into thy hands I commend my spirit.”
•    Psalm 31:5 / Luke 23:46
41.    There would be many attempts to kill the Messiah.
•    Psalm 31:13 / Matthew 27:1
42.    The Messiah would have no bones broken.
•    Psalm 34:20 / John 19:32-33
43.    The Messiah would be accused by many false witnesses.
•    Psalm 35:11 / Mark 14:55-59
44.    The Messiah would be hated without cause.
•    Psalm 35:19 / John 18:19-23; 15:24-25
45.    The Messiah would be silent as a lamb before His accusers.
•    Psalm 38:13-14 / Matthew 26:62-63
46.    The Messiah would be God’s sacrificial lamb for redemption of all mankind.
•    Psalm 40:6-8a / Hebrews 10:10-13
47.    The Messiah would reveal that the Hebrew scriptures were written of Him.
•    Psalm 40:6-8b / Luke 24:44; John 5:39-40
48.    The Messiah would do God’s (His Father) will.
•    Psalm 40:7-8 / John 5:30
49.    The Messiah would not conceal His mission from believing people.
•    Psalm 40:9-10 / Luke 4:16-21
50.    The Messiah would be betrayed by one of His own disciples.
•    Psalm 41:9 / Mark 14:17-18
51.    The Messiah would communicate a message of mercy.
•    Psalm 45:2 / Luke 4:22
52.    The Messiah’s throne would be eternal.
•    Psalm 45:6-7a / Luke 1:31-33; Hebrews 1:8-9
53.    The Messiah would be God.
•    Psalm 45:6-7b / Hebrews 1:8-9
54.    The Messiah would act with righteousness.
•    Psalm 45:6-7c / John 5:30
55.    The Messiah would be betrayed by one of His own disciples.
•    Psalm 55:12-14 / Luke 22:47-48
56.    The Messiah would ascend back into heaven.
•    Psalm 68:18a / Luke 24:51; Ephesians 4:8
57.    The Messiah would give good gifts unto believing men.
•    Psalm 68:18b / Matthew 10:1; Ephesians 4:7-11
58.    The Messiah would be hated and rejected without cause.
•    Psalm 69:4 / Luke 23:13-22; John 15:24-25
59.    The Messiah would be condemned for God’s sake.
•    Psalm 69:7 / Matt. 26:65-67
60.    The Messiah would be rejected by the Jews.
•    Psalm 69:8a / John 1:11
61.    The Messiah’s very own brothers would reject Him.
•    Psalm 69:8b / John 7:3-5
62.    The Messiah would become angry due to unethical practices by the Jews in the temple.
•    Psalm 69:9a / John 2:13-17
63.    The Messiah would be condemned for God’s sake.
•    Psalm 69:9b / Romans 15:3
64.    The Messiah’s heart would be broken.
•    Psalm 69:20a / John 19:34
65.    The Messiah’s disciples would abandon Him just prior to His death.
•    Psalm 69:20b / Mark 14:33-41
66.    The Messiah would be offered gall mingled with vinegar while dying.
•    Psalm 69:21a / Matthew 27:34
67.    The Messiah would thirst while dying.
•    Psalm 69:21b / John 19:28
68.    The potters field would be uninhabited (Field of Blood).
•    Psalm 69:25 / Acts 1:16-20
69.    The Messiah would teach in parables.
•    Psalm 78:2 / Mat.13:34-35
70.    The Messiah would be exalted to the right hand of God.
•    Psalm 80:17 / Acts 5:31
71.    The Messiah would come form the lineage of David.
•    Psalm 89:3-4 / Matthew 1:1
72.    The Messiah would call God His Father.
•    Psalm 89:26 / Matthew 11:27
73.    The Messiah would be God’s only “begotten” Son.
•    Psalm 89:27 / Mark 16:6; Colossians 1:18; Revelation 1:5
74.    The Messiah would come from the lineage of David.
•    Psalm 89:29 / Matthew 1:1
75.    The Messiah would come from the lineage of David.
•    Psalm 89:35-36 / Matthew 1:1
76.    The Messiah would be eternal.
•    Psalm 102:25-27a / Revelation 1:8; Hebrews 1:10-12
77.    The Messiah would be the creator of all things.
•    Psalm 102:25-27b / John 1:3; Ephesians 3:9; Hebrews 1:10-12
78.    The Messiah would calm the stormy sea.
•    Psalm 107:28-29 / Matthew 8:24-26
79.    The Messiah would be accused by many false witnesses.
•    Psalm 109:2 / John 18:29-30
80.    The Messiah would offer up prayer for His enemies.
•    Psalm 109:4 / Luke 23:34
81.    The Messiah’s betrayer (Judas) would have a short life.
•    Psalm 109:8a / Acts 1:16-18; John 17:12
82.    The Messiah’s betrayer would be replaced by another.
•    Psalm 109:8b / Acts 1:20-26
83.    The Messiah would be mocked by many.
•    Psalm 109:25 / Mark 15:29-30
84.    The Messiah would be Lord and King.
•    Psalm 110:1a / Mat. 22:41-45
85.    The Messiah would be exalted to the right hand of God.
•    Psalm 110:1b / Mark 16:19; Mat. 22:41-46
86.    The Messiah would be a Priest after the order of Melchizedek.
•    Psalm 110:4 / Hebrews 6:17-20
87.    The Messiah would be exalted to the right hand of God.
•    Psalm 110:5 / 1 Peter 3:21-22
88.    The Messiah would be the “Stone” rejected by the builders (Jews).
•    Psalm 118:22 / Mat.21:42-43
89.    The Messiah would come in the name of the Lord.
•    Psalm 118:26 / Matthew 21:9
90.    The Messiah would come from the lineage of David.
•    Psalm 132:11 / Matthew 1:1
91.    The Messiah would come from the lineage of David.
•    Psalm 132:17 / Matthew 1:1; Luke 1:68-70

GOD’S PRESENCE – THE TABERNACLE AND THE TEMPLE
TO DAVID AND SOLOMON

God Dwelling in the Garden – God was able to walk with Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.  In the garden man was able to swell where he was intended: in God’s presence.  Genesis 2:8

After the Garden and Before Egypt – Due to man’s sin and rebellion, God withdrew His presence and forced man from paradise.  However, God’s intentions were to remedy the situation, only it would take years.  He chose a person, Abram, and gave him a promise (Gen. 12:1-3).  Abram would be the father of a great nation (Israel), chosen by God to bless the whole world.  This nation would be the key to God bringing mankind back into intimate relationship with Him.

The Tabernacle – After God’s chosen people left Egypt and wandered in the wilderness, God designed a place (the Tabernacle) where He would dwell with them.  It was designed by Him and would be a very Holy Place.  After the Tabernacle was made to God specifications, His glory descended as a cloud to the Holy of Holies.
1.    Specifications – Exodus 25:1-9
2.    Walls (150’ x 75’)
3.    Holy Place (15’ x 20’) – Showbread, incense, candelabra
4.    Most Holy Place (15’ x 15’) – ark (manna, Aaron’s rod, Ten Commandments)
5.    Glory of the Lord descends – Exodus 40:34-38

The Temple (David and Solomon) – After God’s people had settled in the promised land, King David desires to build a permanent structure for God’s Glory.  Instead of the Tabernacle made as a tent, David desires a Temple of stone and precious metals.  Due to David being one who shed blood, God would not allow him to build it however, David’s son was granted the privilege.  King Solomon built the Temple in Jerusalem, on the site of Mount Moriah.  This mount is mentioned as the place where Abraham attempted to sacrifice his son Isaac.  It was also the plot of land that David purchased from Ornan the Jebusite so he could set up an altar and offer burnt offerings to the Lord (1 Chron. 21:18-29).

1.    David desires to build a temple – 2 Samuel 7:1-3
2.    God promises David an eternal house – 2 Sam. 7:4-17
3.    David purchased land on Mt. Moriah to build an altar.  This would be the place of the temple.  It was also the place where Abraham attempted to sacrifice Isaac – Genesis 22; 1 Chron. 21:18-22; 2 Chron. 3:1
4.    David prevented from building the temple – his son would do it – 1 Chron. 22:5-16
5.    Solomon builds the temple – 1 Kings 6
6.    Ark and God’s presence come to the temple – 1 Kings 8
7.    Dedication of the Temple – 1 Kings 8:22-66

The Future of the Temple (its destruction and rebuilding will be studied later)

The Temple of Flesh – The New Testament speaks of Jesus as The Temple (the presence of God indwelling a human being).  It also clarifies that the Church is Christ’s body.  Therefore, the church is the New Temple –the Body of Christ and indwelt with the Holy Spirit.  In addition the Church can serve the priestly functions of the temple by offering sacrifices.  These sacrifices are a holy life.  Believers looked forward to the day when they are given a glorified body and, once again, swell face-to-face with God.  In this New Heaven and New Earth there will be no temple . . . only the glory of the Lord and His Presence!

1.    Jesus as the perfect Temple – John 2:19-20
2.    The Church as the body of Christ – 1 Corinthians 6:19-20
3.    The Church as the temple of God – 1 Cor. 6:16
4.    The Church indwelt with the Holy Spirit – Eph. 2:19-22
5.    The Church as priests offering sacrifices – 1 Peter 2:5
6.    The Church offering sacrifices – Romans 12:1-2; Hebrews 13:15-16
7.    The New Jerusalem without a temple, only the Presence of the Lord – Rev. 21:1, 22-27


Lesson 6 Video

January 27, 2009

CLICK HERE TO VIEW the video of John Geiger teaching Lesson 6 on January 25, 2009 at Eastwood Presbyterian Church, Montgomery, AL.


Lesson 5

January 18, 2009

Old Testament Survey
Week 5
Conquest & the Time of the Judges
(Joshua – Judges—Ruth)

Review

The first five books of scripture are the Pentateuch, the books of Moses. These five books were delivered to the second generation of Israelites in the wilderness, as they were waiting to go in and conquer the land. These books were meant to give the Israelites the awareness that they were to be a special, holy people. Special because God had chosen them by grace and revealed himself to their forefathers, holy because God was holy. They were a people made in God’s image, and trusting that through the promise made to Abraham—a promise to receive land, nation and blessing, God would heal the brokenness that was in the world through sin. God displayed his power in three ways: fulfilling His promises to the patriarchs, in His delivering of Israel out of Egypt and in providing water and food for Israel in the wilderness. The second generation, armed with this knowledge & God’s wise laws, was poised to enter the land promised land of Canaan as God’s special people. Today we begin the 12 books of history, and we will cover the first three—Joshua, Judges and Ruth.

Joshua

The book of Joshua is primarily about the conquest of the land of Canaan. Joshua has been chosen by God to be Moses’ successor, and it becomes clear from the early chapters of Joshua that God is going to be with Joshua and with Israel just as he had been with them when Moses’ led them. (Joshua 3:7)

The book breaks up fairly neatly into three sections (with a thank you to Richard Pratt for this outline):

1-12: Conquest of the land
13-21: Division of the land
21-24: Covenant Renewal

Why is this land so important? Why are there almost ten chapters dedicated to the dividing of the land according to tribe? If you were here during lesson three, you know that the promise to Abraham was foundational to the Israelites. Devout Israelites knew of the promise to Abraham, and set their hope in it. For this reason, Joshua 21:43-45 becomes key:

Joshua 21:43-45: So the LORD gave Israel all the land which He had sworn to give to their fathers, and they possessed it and lived in it. 44 And the LORD gave them rest on every side, according to all that He had sworn to their fathers, and no one of all their enemies stood before them; the LORD gave all their enemies into their hand. 45 Not one of the good promises which the LORD had made to the house of Israel failed; all came to pass.

Receiving the land was the confirmation that the promise made to Abraham had reached a mark of fulfillment. As we will see, there is a greater fulfillment in the future, but this first step would be a great faith building experience for the Israelite people. If you were a people during the time of the Judges or early kingdom, this would be a great reminder that God is faithful to fulfill his promises. In chapters 22-24, we see that just as Moses renewed the covenant between the people and God in the plains of Moab, so Joshua renews the covenant after the thirty years of conquest—setting an example to all generations that follow that your parent’s faith is not enough to save you—you must dedicate yourselves afresh to God.

Judges

Learning from the faith of your parents is one of the central messages of Judges. Whereas the message of Joshua is one of God’s faithfulness & positive conquest, the message of Judges has much to do with explaining the failures of the Israelites to keep the commands of God. It opens by explaining that the Israelites did not fully drive out the inhabitants of the land, a failing which will lead to the remaining people ensnaring the Israelites into idolatry with their false gods—Baal, Asherah, Chemosh, Mot and the like.

The failures of Israel (1:1-2:5) led to a cycle of rebellion, distress and repentance which continued for hundreds of years. This cycle, which consumes a large portion of the book (2:6-16:31) is summarized in Judges 2:10-19. (See the included diagram)

At the conclusion of the book of Judges, chapters 17-21, the religious leaders, the Levites are shown to have utterly abandoned the instructions God gave in Exodus-Deuteronomy. The land has become so polluted with sin that the author uses the same language to describe Israel in those days as had been formerly used by Moses to describe Sodom and Gomorrah. The point is simple—Israel, during this time of autonomy and anarchy, had become as wicked as the nations which they had driven out.

The writer of Judges makes the point of Israel’s wickedness clear to motivate the readers to desire a godly king from the line of Judah. The way to break the cycle of apostasy is to have a godly king who will lead the people in righteousness, and who will train his son to lead the people righteously after him.

Ruth

Situated during the time of the Judges, the central concern of Ruth is to demonstrate that David’s great-grandmother Ruth, though a Moabitess, was a godly woman who trusted the LORD. Therefore David was qualified to be king. We can learn from this how God provides for all who seek him, and may include even those thought to be unlikely choices into even his biggest plans.

Take Away Points
1) The book of Joshua explains how the people of Israel become established in the land of Canaan through God ordained conquest.
2) The book of Judges demonstrates Israel’s need for a godly king which will lead the people in righteousness and train his sons to follow in his ways ; in the same way we should learn from our parents and train our children to avoid cycles of apostasy.
3) The book of Ruth shows that unlikely people can become a part of God’s plan if they will trust him.